Thursday, October 3, 2019

Bullying and Marsh Et Al Essay Example for Free

Bullying and Marsh Et Al Essay Everyday thousand of teens wake up terrified of attending school. About one in seven schools, a child is either a bully or a victim of bullying. Bullying is simply defined as a type of aggressive behavior that involves intent to cause harm and a power imbalance (Olweus, 1999). Bullying can range anywhere from psychological, physical (involving kicking and punching), verbal or cyber abuse. Bullying among children can be considered as a form of abuse’ (0-). It has been put forward that bullying is a division of aggressive behavior and has been further characterized as repetitive and ‘an inability on behalf of the victim to defend him or herself’ (Farrington, 1993, cited it Sapouna, 2008). We learn from Sapouna (2008) that bullying can take the form of ‘verbal (name calling), physical (hitting, kicking) or relational (deliberate exclusion from a group, spreading of malicious rumors). After extensive research in Scandinavia, Olweus(1993, cited in Kumpulainen et al.,1998) proposed that bullying can be carried out by one or more adolescents and usually occurs on repeated occasions, and to some extent, it occurs in all schools. Recently bullying amongst young people has gain notoriety in the press due to the extreme results it has had on certain young individuals. An example of this is Sian Yates, a 13 year old girl who committed suicide after repeated bullying (Daily Mail, 2007). Despite the press attention given to these cases, the extreme consequence of suicide does not occur in the majority of cases. Victims can suffer from a range of harmful effects such as humiliation, anxiety, depression, difficulty with interpersonal relationships, and emotional instability. This lead to the finding of Kumpulainen et al., (1998) that ‘bullying is a common phenomenon among children who are psychologically disturbed.’ The writer went on to say that there are ‘higher rates of psychological distress among both bullies and victims’ than those not involve. However, the literature is consistent in noting that the ‘bullied victims are the most troubled of the bully, victim, bully –vict im triad’ (Juvonen et al., 2003; Ma, 2001; Pellegrini, 2002; Pellegrini et al., 1999;Salmivalli Nieminen, 2002, cited in Cunningham, 2007). Should these lead agencies to focus more on protecting the victim? Some schools have decided that the way forward is to have zero tolerance policies. This may include all students who bully. However, if certain researcher’s numbers are correct it could mean excluding from school, forty percent of the school aged population. Given the widespread nature of the problem can zero tolerance really mean, â€Å"Zero tolerance†? We learn from the NHS ‘website teens for health’ (2008) that ‘anyone can be singled out by bullies.’ The NSPCC found that 31 per cent of children had been bullied at some point (Teens for health, 2008). This being the case, can anyone be bullied? Black and Jackson (2007) have put forward that there lies and ‘an imbalance of power’ between the parties involved in bullying. ‘The bully is stronger through social status, physical prowess, age, cognitive abilities or skill.’ Is this imbalance of power the sa me across the genders? There is an extensive body of literature that suggests that boys are more likely than girls to be bullies as well as victims (Nansel et al.2001; Boulton Smith, 1994; Boulton Underwood, 1992, cited in Marsh, Parada, Craven, Finger, 2004). This doesn’t mean girls cannot be bullies. Stephenson and Smith (1989, cited in Kumpulainen et al., 1998) found that girls as well as boys fitted into the ‘five main groups of people involved in bullying’. These are: ‘dominating bullies, anxious bullies, bully-victims, classical victims, and provocative victims.’ These traits were also found by Sourander,Helstelà ¤, Helenius and Piha (2000) to have clinical implications. Sourander et al., (2000) noted that ‘Bullying is especially associated with aggressive and antisocial behavior while victimization is associated with internalizing problems.’ Whitney and Smith, (1989, cited in Kumpulainen et al., 1998) found ‘bullies to be more prone to have criminal convictions later in life, and more likely to be involved in serious, recidivist crime’. Are criminal convections later in life a fair punishment for their actions? Or should something be done to help the bully? This leads to the question as what is the nature of these young people that make them prone to being a victim or a bully. In the search for a personality construct, many researchers have come to the agreement that ‘bullies are deficient in social information processing or may be intellectually disadvantaged’ (Besag, 1989, cited in Marsh et al., 2004). The work of Crick and Dodge (1994, cited in Marsh et al., 2004) explained that bullies responses to social situations are being met with a filtration process. This ‘cognitive filter’ is based on an aggressive individual interpreting neutral or ambiguous cues as hostile and therefore, making them more likely to engage in aggressive behaviors’ (Marsh et al., 2004). This was also seen to be the case in Bosworth, Espelage, and Simon (1999, cited in Marsh et al., 2004) when ‘a sample of adolescent high school students showed that misconduct, anger, and beliefs supportive of violence were significantly related to bullying behaviors’. Although bullying is an aggressive act, this does not imply that bullies and aggressive or conduct-disordered individuals are a homogenous group. Sutton et al (1999, cited in Marsh, 2004) put forward that bullies were part of a complex environment where they are require to ‘negotiate and attribute mental states to themselves and others to explain or predict their behavior.’ This idea contravenes the notion that ‘bullies are cognitively inept or simple in their inte ractions with peers’ (Sutton et al 1999, cited in Marsh, 2004). References â€Å"Bullying†. Violence Prevention. 1 Dec. 2012 Dawkins, J. L. (1996). Bullying, physical disability and the pediatric patient. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 38 603-612. Espelage, D. L., Holt M. K., Henkel, R. R. (2003). Examination of peer group contextuals effects on aggressive behavior during early adolescence. Child development, 74, 205-220. Pelligrini, A. D. (2002) Bullying and victimization in schools: A Dominance relations perspective . Educational Psychologist, 37, 151-163.

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